What have we learnt in two decades of MySQL?

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 Article on Information Age:
From obscurity to the mainstream, the journey of MySQL shows the power of the open source community to drive innovation.
Read the full article here:

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Securing your MySQL server

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After installing a MySQL database server, like the one I posted earlier, if it's going to be a production environment than you should consider securing the instance by eliminating some of the basic vulnerabilities that come with a generic install.
Fortunately MySQL and MariaDB already come with a tool for that purpose, called mysql_secure_installation. This program enables to perform the following improvements to the security of your installation:

  • set a password for root accounts.
  • remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local host.
  • remove anonymous-user accounts.
  • remove the test database (if exists), which by default can be accessed by anonymous users.

Be advised that as of MySQL 5.7.2, this tool is an executable binary available on all platforms. Before version 5.7.2, it was a script available only for Unix and Unix-like systems.
Invoking the tool without any arguments:
shell> mysql_secure_installation
The script will prompt you to determine which actions to perform:

In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have a root password set, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
ERROR 1008 (HY000) at line 1: Can't drop database 'test'; database doesn't exist
 ... Failed!  Not critical, keep moving...
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MySQL!
You can find what there is to know in terms of options from the official documentation:

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Basic MySQL installation on Ubuntu Server

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The cenario for the installation is an Ubuntu Server with version 14.04 of the operating system. you can download the ISO image for the OS instalation at Canonical's website.
You should perform this install only with the basic platform, maybe choosing only the SSH server in case you're planning remote shell access to this server.

Installation Process

After installing the OS, login into the server and follow the steps to perform a basic MySQL server installation on Ubuntu server as described on the official documentation
To install MySQL, run the following command:
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
You'll be prompted to suplly a password for user 'root'. When done, you can check if the service is listening:
sudo netstat -tap | grep mysql
If the service failed to start automatically, you can restart it issuing the command:
sudo service mysql restart

Post Install Validation

To check if the database engine is running and access the database features, open up a command line on the server and execute the mysql command line utility using the root credentials you supplied during setup:
shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name
With the status command, you can confirm the server is running, for how long and which version is it:

For the list of all MySQL commands type 'help'. To exit, type 'quit'.

Installation path analysis

After installing the database server, its files were placed on the following paths on the local file system (keep in mind this is Ubuntu/Debian specific):

  • /usr/bin/ - binary files for the server and command line utilities
  • /usr/lib/ - libraries
  • /usr/share/man/ - manual pages
  • /usr/share/mysql/ - helper scripts for installation  and language support
  • /var/lib/mysql/ - data files
  • /usr/lib/mysql/plugin/ - plugins installed
  • /etc/mysql/ - configuration files
The my.cnf file, on the /etc/mysql/ directory, is the essential place to control the database engine configuration options.

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